Psychology

FROM OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL UNIVERSE

Psychology is a vast field of knowledge, with abundant research, theories and methods in its possession. On an everyday basis you know much psychology yourself, even without having studied it formally. If you had not possessed this often unconscious knowledge you would have felt it very hard to relate to any of your fellow citizens.

So I will not try to educate you more than you already are educated. I only want to point at some aspects of psychology that I think carries the future in it’s perspective of man.

seminar_future_of_families_istock

Intersubjectivity

Over we see a group of people (very american though),who seem to have a nice time and enjoy each other’s company. Another way of saying this is that the individuals in the picture look as if they relate to each other in a good way.

If that is true, they usually treat each other as equal subjects, instead of objects for each other unsatisfied needs. In modern family psychology this is called an intersubjective encounter between one or more participants, – here between different generations in a family.

The concept of “intersubjectivity” was first to be used by the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas. Later psychologists Jessica Benjamin and Colwyn Trevarthen also used the term “intersubjectivity” in their research. Especially enlightening was the usage of the term intersubjectivity on the mother / child relationship. Here, it strikingly illustrated the infant’s early ability to enter into dialogue with their caregivers even before it could use language.

Modern infant research has revolutionized our understanding of the human child. It has also focused on how the child is seeking eye contact, responding to facial expressions, tone of voice, and parental communication patterns.

Research shows that the infant very early seeks contact and fellowship, and reacts if not the adults respond to this invitation to early dialogue. Often the child must adjust themselves to the “wavelength” of the adult, if the adult does not tune in to the child’s own “frequency”.

Edward Tronick                                                                            Edward  Tronick. The Still Face Experiment video

Interestingly, this video-based research also put the spotlight on the difference between what parents say they do in communicating with their children, and what they actually demonstrably do on the recordings.

PrebirthToThreeProfessorColwynTrevarthenRelationships-Preview         Psychologist Colwyn Trevarthen

Colwyn Trevarthen calls intersubjectivity a common understanding, and he claims it to be the basis of all good communication, interaction and learning. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4Pyu-61N2g

His research and especially Daniel Stern’s work with infants (see below), has given rise to a new variant of modern psychoanalysis, called relational psychoanalysis (Stephen A.Mitchell) Here the older Freudian theory of drives is rejected, also the “object focus” of traditonal “Egopsychology”.

Instead it seems clear from the above referred research that the child enjoys to act as a participant in the relation, and that it’s the interaction with responding others that is gratifying in itself.attachment

Dialectical Relations Theory, which will be referred to below, has based much of its thinking and practice on later psychodynamic theory, and research on intersubjectivity.

Psychology, -a young science.

Psychology is a relatively young science. Yet it is fair to say that both philosophers, priests and a number of self-appointed coaches have acted as advisory psychologists for several thousand years.

Actually, as already mentioned, we all probably have some unskilled psychologist in us. That is, if we have grown up in a culture, learned the language and have managed considerably well. Put another way, – we have to some degree learned to read other people’s feelings and desires. content_Banner

We have also gained a certain ability to analyze interpersonal situations and shared cultural heritage. All this in order to be able to navigate ourselves in the social field, through a myriad of different people and their survival strategies.

yalearchitecture_sss2

So-called scientific psychology on the other hand, were not established until 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. That year psychologist Wilhelm Wundt established the world’s first experimental laboratory. Here he started to study the human mind with scientific methods.

Sigmund Freud.

s.freud

Most people have heard about Sigmund Freud, – the founder of psychoanalytic theory. His theory was launched and elaborated in a number of writings and papers from 1887 to 1938.

Freud’s psychoanalysis has not been perceived as scientifically verifiable though, but it has had a tremendous influence on our western heritage. Not to mention our conception of psychological mechanisms, and how human motives might express themselves in a complex mixture of overt and covert behavior.

tippi-birds                     From Alfred Hitchcocks scary Movie: “Birds”

In addition, Western art in general, i.e. film, literature, and painting, draws on a deep legacy of psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalysis, has also altered our conception of ourselves as totally rational.

The difference between unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious functioning, – and the psychological mechanisms of defense, stems mainly from this psychological tradition. the-melting-watch, salvador dali            Salvador Dali’s  painting “The melting Watch”

In hospital psychiatry the psychoanalytic theory altered the treatment and understanding of mental illness as something other than physical illness. At a number of institutions treatment changed from scary shock-like methods, including lobotomy, to conversation.

terrifying_asylum_tour_of_the_past_01                            Obsolete psychiatric Methods.

 

3ac1c38bc66361c4782a18049ba884fa  Psychoanalytic conversation on the coach, (still practiced)

 

left-img-your-experience          Modern treatment through mutual conversation

These on-the-coach conversations were often focusing on dreams, forbidden thoughts and feelings, and on awareness of the patients own motives and drives. The face to face more typical treatment form today, is mostly based on what the patient himself brings up. Then its the therapist job to focus on the patients feelings, thoughts and actions in connection with these issues.

Often the therapist must invite the patient to remember. Remember how such topics, issues or problems were solved or not solved, in the patients family of origin. And then how this really felt for him or her at that time. The next question arises whether anyone could see the reaction it made on him or her when it happened. Was he glad or sad, or didn’t he feel anything? Did he just slam some doors or went to bed empty and numm?

Hypnosis

It was after a visit with hypnosis doctor Hyppolite Bernheim in Nancy, France, that Freud really became aware of the existence of the unconscious. Here on a demonstration the patient was asked to open a window after he was awakened from hypnosis. Still in hypnosis, he was told that he would not remember why afterwards. When the patient woke up he went quite right straight over to the window to open it, and justified it all that it was too hot in the room.

hynose2

Morpheus, the godess of sleep and hypnosis

In 1900 Freud published the book “The Interpretation of Dreams”. The work focuses on the subconscious world we carry with us beneath the surface. A world that most often is expressed more or less disguised in our dreams.Die_Traumdeutung

During the last century strong contradictions arose inside the field of psychology. A number of seemingly incompatible schools of thought, and view of man, were established. These included Behavioral Psychology, Social Psychology, Gestalt Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Humanistic Psychology and Developmental Psychology.

Fortunately, also a rapprochement took place between Freud’s descendants, such as Carl Jung, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan and representatives of Humanistic psychology, such as Carl Rogers

.51Qa7txMFzL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_

Also the research-based developmental psychology I have referred above, contributed to a modern form of relational psychodynamic psychology. Such pioneers like Harry Harlow, Rene ‘Spitz, John Bowlby, Donald Winnicott, and infant researchers Colwyn Trevarthen, Daniel Stern and Edward Tronick have changed the way we view children nowadays.

Rene Spitz

And Rene ‘ Spitz’ (picture above) early studies of child depression associated with hospital stay, have changed hospital policy regarding the presence of parent in the child wards or sections.51oCbzi9gjL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_

John Bowlby (above)and his “Attachment Theory” discusses his research on children’s attachment to their parents.

D.SternDaniel Stern

Daniel Stern’s research and development theory has made important contributions to modern family psychology.

marriage-family

There is no longer focus only on the individual. It is always the individual in relation to his family or the others in the community, small or large. This is because everybody is more or less mutually dependent on each other in.Infants. 

Neuroscience and brain research of the infant and mother relationship.

In the last twenty five years brain research methods have been more and more advanced and used in the exploration of the mother and infant relationship. High-resolution scanners have made it possible to keep track of what happens in the mother and child’s brain when they look at each other and are in contact, even before the child develops verbal language.

One of the key findings of this research is that the child’s brain interacts detectable with the mother’s brain. It has also been proven that in the beginning,  the deeper layers of the right hemisphere of the child are stimulated and ripen first, followed gradually by layers located over these areas.

This happens according to psychologist and neuroscientist Alan Schore, during the first two years of the human child. This research also shows that a good and attentive, continuous presence is crucial the first two years of the child’s life. This is to ensure the infant and child’s mental and physical health.

The  mother’s ability to using her brain  to read the child’s condition at any given time, is also important. It gives the child the necessary help to regulate emotions and different body conditions, before the child can manage more of it alone.

After some two years of development the last part of the brain to be activated  and matured is the cortex. When this happens, – the child more and more will be enabled to take emotional control and to regulate  his or her personal behavior. (A. Shore, 2001 “Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, Affect regulation and infant mental health”)

Psychological Universe will look into this research as a separate item in the spring 2017. We will discuss how this knowledge may affect the question of when it is recommendable for a child to be admitted to the kindergarden in the care of others.

                                     Alan Schore one of the most prominent researchers on brain Development and Human Relations.         

 

Recognition and Acceptance

Another well-known psychologist that have substantiated her later articles and books on this and similar neuropsychological research is Anne Lise Løvlie Schibbye. Her article on the importance and impact of face to face contact refers a great deal to these psycho-neuroligical studies.

Ph.D. Psychologist Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye is a Norwegian variant of the relational and intersubjective form of psychological theory and thinking that we refer to on this page. Her theories and treatment methods have been developed for both  individual therapy and therapy with families,  and are used all over Scandinavia.

            Al L Schibbye                                                   Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye. “A Dialectical Theory of Relations”

The Dialectical Theory of Relations, emphasize the mutually contingent relations between members in a family. In it’s depth it is both a very complex and extremely interesting theoretical framework, But it is also a manageable and specific, down to earth practical effective therapeutical  tool.

It mainly focuses on the intra family relations and the interdependencies that are as much unconscious, as they are consciously recognized by the participants awareness.  These family or partnership relations affect each individual self on many levels.

If one member or part of the family relation changes, the whole family is affected. And what you do to the others in the relation, will always fall back or backfire on you, in some way. This is the main principle of dialectics in human relations, especially in family and couple  relations.  If you manage to change in your family, your whole family will in some way or another change as well!

To improve yourself in close relations, Løvlie-Schibbye emphasis the importance of being aware of yourself . That is to gain knowledge of your emotions, and experiences and your way of speaking With, and acting towards other people. With this knowledge your chance to communicate effectively, increase. You will also be able to anticipate reactions from the others more easily.

This awareness is difficult to achieve, if you have not learned to truly accept or recognize yourself as you are.   Therefore The Dialectical Theory of Relations focus on the concept of recognition. The importance of recognizing the other is crucial in understanding how change can happen both in the Self and in the family as a whole.

The child’s basic need as a psychological being has to be recognized, acknowledged, and accepted by the other. This is so whether the acceptance comes from mom and dad, or other important people in the child’s network.

VisBildeServlet

Recognition of the child’s own experiences, thoughts and intentions is thus assumed to have a major impact on the individual throughout the whole life cycle. It is also considered as a prerequisite for being able to develop a reasonably safe and independent self into adulthood. Which means, an individual who have achieved qualities like: – being able to enter mutually binding relationships with others. – Having the capacity to empathize both with own and others’ experiences and pain. And having the ability to give and receive love, and separate own needs from others. to name some.

This person is not;  “an individual is an Island”- person. It is a person that know its limits and strength, and is aware of his or her interrelatedness to others. Recognition in this sense, is not superficial. Its goes to the core of what it means to be a human being, with all kinds of feelings and longings, even greed.

The caretaker or therapist accept and acknowledge that these emotions and urges exist, even greed, without yielding to it. If the small child so to say demands for the sun and moon, or cries out at the supermarket; “I want that toy”, there is no point in condemning the wish. Let the child accept his or her strong wishes by accepting it yourself.

One way to respond to this inquiry or request, is to say: – I know you would like to have that toy. It’s a fine toy. You cannot have it today, perhaps if you still want it for your birthday or Christmas, you’ll get it then. Even if the child screams out in protest, the attitude, is; – I know you’re sorry, but you can’t have it now. End of discussion.

Conclusion

In this small article I have in my opinion retrieved some of the most important contributions to our new Psychological Universe. The researchers I  have referred to, have all in common a deep respect of man and human nature, and the importance of treating the human infant and child with empathy, dignity, positive accept and guidance.

How the world will develop as a multicultural habitat for human beings, depends on us grown ups.  How these,-  our children, are being treated by us as parents,  caretakers, culture and country, will most likely determine our future!

gutter i india leker children-around-the-world-60jenter chidren-playing-around-the-world-51gutt og kanin

89 thoughts on “Psychology”

    1. Oh Yeah, I see what you’re telling from Your work! That’s very unprofessional from Your co-worker! can you relate this incident to one of my sites? If so I am glad!

    1. Thats very good to hear. Be Our guest, and thank you so much for commenting. CU soon back!

    1. Then I am glad Adela! Readers are my best friends on Psychological Universe! I want to raise the consciousness of everyone comming here!Even Beyond the already high Level!

    2. I do agree with all the ideas you’ve introduced to your post.

      They are really convincing and can definitely work.

      Nonetheless, the posts are too short for novices. May just you please lengthen them
      a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

      1. Thank you Scarlett! please specify what you need elaborated or else I am not cabable of priority!

  1. I do agree with all the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are too short for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

    1. Hi I have heard this comment before. Thank you for informing me. But I must have some clues to which post/posts you need elaboration on! I website this in short because my Scientific articles are boring to most People.
      Hope to hear from you here or: rediscovery20@gmail.com

    1. Love to have you as a Reader too. I am happy for it! Thank you so much for commenting!

  2. During the early 1980′s, when only thirteen percent of women in the United states obtained mammograms, the average tumor size at detection was about three centimeters.6. Venus – musicians, artists, tors and tresses and all lovers of art.. Depending on cumulative proof, screening mammography has develop into common well being care in several countries. Other items that are bound to be used include leather toiletry bags, leather wallets, money clips, business card holders and cases, passport holders, grooming kits, garment bags, leather notepads, as well as engraved thumb drives.Apart from academic curriculum, the colleges of Oklahoma University are popular for conducting extracurricular activities like sport activity and athletics. Few back ground coming from your Japan Imperial Japan embassies to start, your abdominal the very Asian subculture and or method progressed through the unique society coming from all The Japanese.The Sports Network’s diverse content coverage allows them to solidify their global position also in key markets, with specific interests in particular sports.Dance Shoes provI’ve seen Febreze coupons within the small coupon guide Costco hands out once you get into in more than one oasion.

    1. Thank you and if you tell me what you think about the content of me website and why, I will tell you what I like bout jerseys you’re selling!

  3. Hi there all, here every person is sharing such knowledge, therefore it’s fastidious to read this weblog,
    and I used to pay a visit this web site daily.

    1. Danae! I am so glad you can take out what you like and need from some of these articles! Be welcomed back! Thank you so much for commenting!

  4. I believe everything wrote was very logical. However, think on this, what if you
    added a little content? I am not suggesting your cojtent isn’t good., however what if
    you added a title to possibly get folk’s attention? I mean Psychology – Psychological Universe is a little plain. You might peek
    at Yahoo’s home page and watch how they create news titles to grab viewers to open the links.

    Youu might add a video or a related picture or
    two to grab people excited about what you’ve got to say.
    Just my opinion, it could bring your blog a little livelier.

    1. Hey Lance. havent you told me this before? I think you did, or someone else with the same sentence and words! Anyway I’ll reflect on it and see what I can do! Thanks for complaining I mean commenting.lol

    1. I appreciate your very uplifting comment, and that I have you as a reader! Thank you!

    1. Joshua! You should know how pleased I am for hearing this, not just because I have written it, but because it matters as important issues, to constantly understand more of!

  5. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my blog thus i came to eturn the favor?I am attempting to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

    1. Hi and hello again! You can use my ideas and refer to my website as a Source, and elaborate what you want in your blog. Nice to hear from you!

  6. rmmd he should be the one leaving town not becka. hello dolly its june i have a favor to ask you .as the new nurse will wind up learning to really not do much and then also learn not to argue with june. mw. of course your are being concerned amy for you know if things get real serious with sean you have to take care of your kid yourself no more denying hannah her social life. phantom oh oh they saw the phantoms reall face a few more added to the phantoms body count.
    calvin klein outlet sale

    1. Hi there in CK! Thanks for stopping by! Here’s a morning greeting for you from me in PsychUniv:

  7. Howdy very cool blog!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?I’m glad to search out so many useful info right here within the publish, we need develop extra techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .
    north face gb shell

    1. Wow thats an exuberant and nice evaluation! I am so happy for having you as a Reader! Welcome back!

  8. I simply desired to appreciate you once again. I am not sure the things I might have used without the entire techniques shared by you concerning that area. Certainly was a traumatic crisis in my circumstances, but considering your specialized style you managed it took me to cry for joy. Now i’m grateful for this support and then hope that you realize what an amazing job you have been providing training some other people thru a site. I’m certain you’ve never come across any of us.
    vera bradley outlet online

    1. You are very Nice and specific in you personal comment to me! So interesting! I ppreciate it very much and am very glad to have you as my Reader. Hope that you will return soon! Then I ask:

  9. Fantastic beat ! I wish to apprentice even as you amend your website, how could i subscribe for a weblog web site? The account aided me a applicable deal. I have been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided shiny transparent idea
    dj cocoa chanelle

    1. Thank you for Your greeting! Just go to Google and search for building my blog etc. and you will also see from youtube! The decide whether to pay for host or take a free commercialbased website! Good Luck to you!

  10. (all the bad things I’m afraid of happen?!?!)Just when we are poised and ready to make the play of our lives, we choke on our fears and cause the entire thing to go awry!In my little baseball afternoon, it wasn’t that big of a deal – I pretended like it didn’t hurt, ran to the ball and threw it to my cut-off honey, only to miss Johnie at home by less than a foot! He was safe and we lost the game. Those can be compromised and the other person can learn in the other, but it’s something to notice about that person ascertain what they’re about. When you start new think in terms of what you need to get good at.Ludwick will be activated off the disabled list on Monday before the start of a three-game series in Chicago against the Cubs. A person having a poor digestion, doing high performance sport or being exposed to a high amount of environmental stressors, may need more than a person in an average situation. I was tuned into my competitive intuition. All these accessories are beneficial in providing mobility and comfort to bowlers.The Orioles have been compiling a list of candidates in case Adair did not return. According to these dealers introduction, anhui province in each prefecture telecommunications companies choose several mobile phone retailers and signed the agency agreement with these retailers, responsible for sale by the iPhone4 cell phone. When these are shortened enough, cells stop dividing.
    Cheap Jerseys

  11. Hey there are using WordPress for your site platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any coding knowledge to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!|

    1. Hey! No U dont need that. Let the host do it! I went to webschool and learned the tricks but it was so time consuming and often things went wrong so I gave the job away to BHost.

    1. Thank so much! Will you be psychologist then? Hope to see you back when you relax in your hard graduating worth.

    1. Wonderful comment! Psychological Universe is happy to have you regularly in Our House! We hope to inspire you further on these important issues!

    1. Patagonia Southern Argentine hello! Thank you for Your brilliant evaluation of our website! We are very glad having you as a Reader!

  12. Finding the right exercise plan, dietary guide, or leisure schedule is an important part of identifying this discipline because we need to empathise with it, believe in it and trust it. If you are excited by the prospect of having more control over the development of your career then the Post-Graduate Certificate in Career Management Strategy (CCMS) is likely to constitute the best self-development financial investment that you are ever likely to make. You have to be focused on creating real modifications and stay with them. The encouraged daily volume is 64 oz .com report.
    Cheap Jerseys

    1. Hello! You Write a lot in your comment, but we can’t find the link to our website in it. Check your server if there could be a misunderstanding, and please return for Reading and adequate commenting. Cheers.

    1. Hello, and thank you for Your visit. We like very much positive response, and also specific references to what People like Reading!

  13. cartierbraceletlove Please note that the furious, frothing, hysterical remarks here nearly all contain anti-Muslim sentiment. Few or none contain anti-Western or anti-Christian remarks. People, go get help! Life is short. Don’t waste it in mindless hate. And don’t imagine that you sound brave or righteous when you rant. It’s just embarrassing and hurtful. There will always be an Other to fear and despise. But that’s the easy path, and it runs downhill into darkness.
    prix collier alhambra van cleef

    1. Hello! There are no anti muslim attitudes here! I think you mean somebody elses blog!

  14. Just wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness to your publish is just nice and that i could suppose you are an expert in this subject. Fine together with your permission allow me to grasp your RSS feed to stay updated with impending post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.
    barbour online usa

  15. I am no longer positive the place you’re getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend a while studying much more or working out more. Thank you for excellent information I used to be searching for this info for my mission.|

    1. We are very glad you find interest in our website! We hope to encourage people to start thinking outside the preconstued Box! Welcome back!

  16. I do not even understand how I finished up right here, however I thought this put up was once good. I don’t realize who you might be however certainly you’re going to a famous blogger should you are not already. Cheers!
    furla wiki

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *